fnm-20200930
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q

    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from      to         
Commission file number: 0-50231
Federal National Mortgage Association
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Fannie Mae
Federally chartered corporation
52-0883107
1100 15th Street, NW


800232-6643
Washington,DC20005
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
NoneN/AN/A
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes      No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 
As of October 15, 2020, there were 1,158,087,567 shares of common stock of the registrant outstanding.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I—Financial Information
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II—Other Information
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
1

MD&A | Introduction
PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 2.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
We have been under conservatorship, with the Federal Housing Finance Agency (“FHFA”) acting as conservator, since September 6, 2008. As conservator, FHFA succeeded to all rights, titles, powers and privileges of the company, and of any shareholder, officer or director of the company with respect to the company and its assets. The conservator has since provided for the exercise of certain authorities by our Board of Directors. Our directors do not have any fiduciary duties to any person or entity except to the conservator and, accordingly, are not obligated to consider the interests of the company, the holders of our equity or debt securities, or the holders of Fannie Mae MBS unless specifically directed to do so by the conservator.
We do not know when or how the conservatorship will terminate, what further changes to our business will be made during or following conservatorship, what form we will have and what ownership interest, if any, our current common and preferred stockholders will hold in us after the conservatorship is terminated or whether we will continue to exist following conservatorship. The U.S. Department of the Treasury (“Treasury”) released a plan in September 2019 for housing finance reform (the “Treasury plan”) that includes recommendations related to ending our conservatorship. Congress and the Administration continue to consider options for reform of the housing finance system, including Fannie Mae. We are not permitted to retain more than $25 billion in capital reserves or to pay dividends or other distributions to stockholders other than Treasury. Our agreements with Treasury include covenants that significantly restrict our business activities. For additional information on the conservatorship, our uncertain future, our agreements with Treasury, and recent housing finance reform developments, see “Business—Conservatorship, Treasury Agreements and Housing Finance Reform” in our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 (“2019 Form 10-K”), “Risk Factors” in our 2019 Form 10-K and in this report, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (‘MD&A’)—Legislation and Regulation” in our Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 (“Second Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q”).
You should read this MD&A in conjunction with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes in this report and the more detailed information in our 2019 Form 10-K. You can find a “Glossary of Terms Used in This Report” in our 2019 Form 10-K. Forward-looking statements in this report are based on management’s current expectations and are subject to significant uncertainties and changes in circumstances, as we describe in “Forward-Looking Statements.” Future events and our future results may differ materially from those reflected in our forward-looking statements due to a variety of factors, including those discussed in “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report and in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Introduction
Fannie Mae is a leading source of financing for mortgages in the United States. Our revenues are primarily driven by guaranty fees we receive for managing the credit risk on loans underlying the mortgage-backed securities we issue. Our mission is to provide a stable source of liquidity to support housing in the U.S. for low- and moderate-income borrowers and renters. We operate in the secondary mortgage market, primarily working with lenders, who originate loans to borrowers. We do not originate loans or lend money directly to borrowers in the primary mortgage market. Instead, we securitize mortgage loans originated by lenders into Fannie Mae mortgage-backed securities that we guarantee (which we refer to as Fannie Mae MBS or our MBS); purchase mortgage loans and mortgage-related securities, primarily for securitization and sale at a later date; manage mortgage credit risk; and engage in other activities that support access to credit and the supply of affordable housing. In order to perform these activities through market cycles in accordance with our mission, we are working closely with FHFA, our conservator and regulator, to prioritize safety and soundness, strong risk management and strong corporate governance.
Through our single-family and multifamily business segments, we provided $982 billion in liquidity to the mortgage market in the first nine months of 2020, including $506 billion through our whole loan conduit that primarily supports small- to medium-sized lenders, enabling the financing of approximately 3.9 million home purchases, refinancings or rental units. Our liquidity provided in the first nine months of 2020 represents our highest level of acquisition volume since the first nine months of 2003.
Fannie Mae Provided $982 Billion in Liquidity in the First Nine Months of 2020
Unpaid Principal BalanceUnits
$286B
1.0M
Single-Family Home Purchases
$647B
2.3M
Single-Family Refinancings
$49B
542K
Multifamily Rental Units
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Executive Summary
Summary of Our Financial Performance
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The increase in our net income in the third quarter of 2020, compared with the third quarter of 2019, was primarily driven by an increase in net interest income due to higher loan prepayments as a result of the historically low interest rate environment, an increase in investment gains and a decrease in fair value losses. These were partially offset by a decrease in credit-related income due to expected credit losses as a result of the economic dislocation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our net interest income for the third quarter of 2020 was also impacted by the application of our accounting policy for nonaccrual loans that allowed us to continue accruing interest income on delinquent loans that were current at March 1, 2020 and have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of this update, we recognized $763 million in interest income related to these loans in the third quarter which we would not have recognized prior to the application of our updated policy. See “Consolidated Results of Operations” for more information on our financial results and “Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—New Accounting Guidance” for more information about our policy for nonaccrual loans.
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The decrease in our net income in the first nine months of 2020, compared with the first nine months of 2019, was primarily driven by a shift from credit-related income to credit-related expense driven by the economic dislocation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by an increase in net interest income due to higher loan prepayments as a result of the historically low interest rate environment. Our net interest income in the first nine months of 2020 was also impacted by our recognition of $2.2 billion in interest income as a result of the update in our application of our policy for nonaccrual loans as
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described above. We also recognized $569 million of provision for loan losses on the related accrued interest receivable in the first nine months of 2020.
Net worth. Our net worth was $20.7 billion as of September 30, 2020. This amount reflects:
our net worth of $14.6 billion as of December 31, 2019;
a reduction in our net worth in the first quarter of 2020 driven by a charge of $1.1 billion to retained earnings due to our implementation of Accounting Standards Update 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments and related amendments (the “CECL standard”) on January 1, 2020; and
our comprehensive income of $7.2 billion for the first nine months of 2020.
See “Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—New Accounting Guidance—The Current Expected Credit Loss Standard” for further details on our implementation of the CECL standard.
Changes in our net worth can be significantly impacted by market conditions that affect our net interest income; fluctuations in the estimated fair value of our derivatives and other financial instruments that we mark to market through our earnings; developments that affect our loss reserves, such as changes in interest rates, home prices or accounting standards, or events such as natural disasters or pandemics; and other factors, as we discuss in “Risk Factors” and “Consolidated Results of Operations” in our 2019 Form 10-K and in this report.
Financial performance. Our long-term financial performance will depend on many factors, including:
the size of and our share of the U.S. mortgage market, which in turn will depend upon macroeconomic factors such as population growth, household formation and housing supply;
borrower performance and changes in macroeconomic factors, including home prices and interest rates; and
actions by FHFA, the Administration and Congress relating to our business and housing finance reform, including the capital requirements that will be applicable to us, our ongoing financial obligations to Treasury, potential restrictions on our activities and our business footprint, our competitive environment, and actions we are required to take to support borrowers or the mortgage market.
Quarterly fluctuations in acquisition volumes, market share, guaranty fees, or acquisition credit characteristics in any one period typically have limited impact on the size and stability of our conventional guaranty book of business and the associated revenue, profitability, and credit quality. Only a portion of our guaranty book of business turns over each year. In eight of the past ten years, less than 20% of loans in our single-family conventional guaranty book of business held at year end had been originated during the year.
Historically low mortgage rates have contributed to our highest level of acquisition volume in the first nine months of 2020 since the same period in 2003. As a result, we acquired a higher-than-usual portion of our book of business during the first nine months of 2020, with 27% of the loans in our single-family conventional guaranty book of business as of September 30, 2020 originated in the first nine months of the year. Because we expect mortgage rates to remain low through 2021, we anticipate a large and growing portion of our book of business, originated in a historically-low-interest-rate environment, will have less incentive to refinance in the future, slowing the pace at which loans in our book of business turn over in future years. A slower turnover rate in our book of business would reduce our ability to increase our future revenues by increasing guaranty fees, as any such change would take longer to meaningfully increase the average charged guaranty fee on our total book of business. See “MD&A—Legislation and Regulation—Developments Relating to Exiting Conservatorship” in our Second Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q for a discussion of how this may impact our efforts to generate capital and “Consolidated Results of Operations—Net Interest Income” in this report for information on how this may affect amortization income we receive in future periods. Also see “COVID-19 Impact—Fannie Mae Response” and “Single-Family Business—Single-Family Business Metrics” in this report for a discussion of the new adverse market refinance fee we plan to implement on December 1, 2020.
As described further in “COVID-19 Impact” and “Risk Factors,” the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected our financial performance and we expect that it will continue to do so. Given the unprecedented nature of the COVID-19 pandemic and the fast pace at which new developments relating to the pandemic are occurring, it is difficult to assess or predict the long-term effects of the pandemic on our financial performance.
Net Worth, Treasury Funding and Senior Preferred Stock Dividends
Treasury has made a commitment under a senior preferred stock purchase agreement to provide funding to us under certain circumstances if we have a net worth deficit. Pursuant to the senior preferred stock purchase agreement, we issued shares of senior preferred stock to Treasury in 2008.
Under the terms of the senior preferred stock, we will not owe senior preferred stock dividends to Treasury until we have accumulated over $25 billion in net worth as of the end of a quarter. Accordingly, no dividends were payable to Treasury for the third quarter of 2020, and none are payable for the fourth quarter of 2020.
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The charts below show information about our net worth, the remaining amount of Treasury’s funding commitment to us, senior preferred stock dividends we have paid Treasury and funds we have drawn from Treasury pursuant to its funding commitment.
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(1)Aggregate amount of dividends we have paid to Treasury on the senior preferred stock from 2008 through September 30, 2020. Under the terms of the senior preferred stock purchase agreement, dividend payments we make to Treasury do not offset our draws of funds from Treasury.
(2)Aggregate amount of funds we have drawn from Treasury pursuant to the senior preferred stock purchase agreement from 2008 through September 30, 2020.
The aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock increased from $135.4 billion as of June 30, 2020 to $138.0 billion as of September 30, 2020 due to the $2.5 billion increase in our net worth during the second quarter of 2020. The aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock will increase to $142.2 billion as of December 31, 2020 due to the $4.2 billion increase in our net worth during the third quarter of 2020.
If we were to draw additional funds from Treasury under the senior preferred stock purchase agreement with respect to a future period, the amount of remaining funding under the agreement would be reduced by the amount of our draw, and the aggregate liquidation preference of the senior preferred stock would increase by the amount of our draw. For a description of the terms of the senior preferred stock purchase agreement and the senior preferred stock, see “Business—Conservatorship, Treasury Agreements and Housing Finance Reform” in our 2019 Form 10-K.
Treasury owns our senior preferred stock and a warrant to purchase 79.9% of our common stock. Treasury has also made a commitment under the senior preferred stock purchase agreement to provide us with funds to maintain a positive net worth under specified conditions. However, the U.S. government does not guarantee our securities or other obligations.
COVID-19 Impact
In March 2020, President Trump declared the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States a national emergency. The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States resulted in stay-at-home orders, school closures and widespread business shutdowns across the country. Although business activity and community life have resumed to varying degrees, the future path of economic activity remains highly uncertain.
The pandemic continues to have a significant impact on our business and on our financial results. We provide a brief overview below of the economic impact of the pandemic, our response to it, and the pandemic’s impact on our business and financial results, with references to where these items are discussed in more detail in this report. We also highlight below the many uncertainties relating to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Fannie Mae and the housing market.
Economic Impact
The COVID-19 pandemic caused substantial financial market volatility and has significantly adversely affected both the U.S. and global economies. While state and local governments throughout the country have re-opened their economies to varying degrees, the U.S. economy continues to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the economy has improved significantly since the second quarter of 2020, business activity remains well below the level before the onset of the pandemic, with unemployment remaining substantially higher than pre-pandemic levels. Moreover, new daily cases of COVID-19 in the U.S. have been trending upward in October, exceeding their previous peak in July and increasing the risk of new shut-downs and reductions in business activity. The federal government has taken many actions to reduce the negative economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the Federal Reserve lowered the federal funds rate and increased its purchases of
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Treasury and mortgage-backed securities, purchased corporate debt securities, and established and expanded liquidity facilities to support the flow of credit to consumers and businesses. In addition, the federal government passed legislation increasing and expanding unemployment benefits, providing direct cash payments to eligible taxpayers, and allocating funds to assist businesses, states, and municipalities.
The disruption caused by the pandemic differs from previous economic downturns because of the high level of uncertainty related to the health and safety of consumers and workers. We expect the path and timing of economic recovery will be impacted by the rate of new COVID-19 cases and the associated mortality rates. We believe that sustaining the current economic recovery depends on continued growth in consumer spending, increased business activity, and an associated reduction in unemployment, all of which impact the ability of borrowers and renters to make their monthly payments. Government support, as described above, has played a role in helping to reduce the negative economic impact of the pandemic. Some of these programs have ended, including the $600 federal supplement to state unemployment benefits, which expired at the end of July. The ultimate impact of the expiration of these programs and the extent to which any future government actions will mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19 on the U.S. economy and our business is highly unclear. The pandemic resulted in a contraction in U.S. gross domestic product (“GDP”) in the second quarter of 2020 that we expect will not be entirely offset by growth in the second half of the year. See “Key Market Economic Indicators” for information on macroeconomic conditions during the first nine months of 2020 and our current forecasts regarding future macroeconomic conditions.
Fannie Mae Response
We are taking a number of actions to help borrowers, renters, lenders and servicers manage the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including:
providing payment forbearance (that is, a temporary suspension or reduction of the borrower’s monthly mortgage payments) to single-family and multifamily borrowers with COVID-19-related financial hardships;
suspending most foreclosures and evictions;
conducting outreach efforts to provide borrowers and renters with information on the relief options available to them, including our #HeretoHelp media campaign and updating our KnowYourOptions.com website;
providing lenders and servicers temporary flexibilities for certain of our Selling Guide and Servicing Guide requirements; and
providing liquidity to lenders by purchasing a higher-than-usual volume of loans through our whole loan conduit.
We have also taken steps to mitigate the risk to Fannie Mae from the impacts of the pandemic, including the following:
Selling Guide Changes. We have temporarily changed some of our Single-Family Selling Guide requirements to help ensure that up-to-date information is being considered to support the borrower’s ability to repay the loan, such as requiring more recent documentation of borrower employment, income and assets.
Adverse Market Refinance Fee. We are implementing a new adverse market refinance fee in light of the increased costs and risk we expect to incur due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This new adverse market refinance fee is a one-time charge of 0.5% of the loan amount that the lender is required to pay at the time we acquire the loan and will be effective December 1, 2020. To help ensure that the fee does not negatively impact our affordable housing mission, the fee will only apply to eligible single-family loan refinances and will not apply to loans for home purchases, refinance loans with an original principal amount of less than or equal to $125,000, or certain HomeReady® refinance loans. The lender may choose whether to pass on all, some or none of the fee to the borrower. The new fee is intended to help us offset some of the higher projected expenses and risk due to COVID-19, including costs associated with the actions we are taking to help borrowers, lenders and servicers impacted by the pandemic, such as providing forbearances, suspending foreclosures and evictions, and offering repayment plans, payment deferrals and loan modifications.
See “Single-Family Business—Single-Family Mortgage Credit Risk Management” and “Multifamily Business—Multifamily Mortgage Credit Risk Management” for more information on the actions we are taking in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
We have also taken steps to help protect the safety and resiliency of our workforce. From mid-March through early October 2020, we required nearly all of our workforce to work remotely. Beginning in early October, we are now allowing employees, on a voluntary basis, to request approval to return to work at some of our office locations and have established mandatory COVID-19 safety protocols for these locations. We expect a significant majority of our employees will continue to work remotely for the foreseeable future. To date, our business resiliency plans and technology systems have effectively supported this telework arrangement.
Impact on our Business and Financial Results
The economic dislocation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic was the primary driver of the decline in our net income in the first nine months of 2020, as compared with the first nine months of 2019. We significantly increased our allowance for loan losses in the first nine months of 2020 to reflect our expected loan losses as a result of the pandemic, which resulted in
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substantial credit-related expenses. We are also incurring other costs associated with the pandemic, such as paying higher fees to servicers to support providing loss mitigation to borrowers. We expect the impact of the pandemic to continue to negatively affect our financial results, contributing to lower net income in 2020 than in 2019. We could also have net losses in future periods. In addition, we expect the pandemic to negatively affect our returns on capital under FHFA’s conservatorship capital requirements. See “Consolidated Results of Operations,” “Single-Family Business” and “Multifamily Business” for more information on our financial results for the third quarter and first nine months of 2020.
We did not enter into new credit risk transfer transactions in the second quarter of 2020 due to adverse market conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Although market conditions improved in the third quarter of 2020, we did not enter into any new credit risk transfer transactions in the third quarter and currently do not have plans to engage in additional new credit risk transfer transactions in the near future, as we evaluate FHFA’s recently proposed capital rule, FHFA’s conservatorship scorecard requirements and other factors. FHFA’s proposed capital rule would reduce the amount of capital relief we obtain from these transactions. We will continue to review our plans, which may be affected by our evaluation of the proposed capital rule and changes in the rule as it is finalized, our progress in meeting FHFA’s conservatorship scorecard, the strength of future market conditions, and our review of our overall business and capital plan to enable us to exit conservatorship. See “MD&A—Legislation and Regulation” in our Second Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q for more information on FHFA’s proposed capital rule. See “Single-Family Business—Single-Family Mortgage Credit Risk Management—Single-Family Credit Enhancement and Transfer of Mortgage Credit Risk” and “Multifamily Business—Multifamily Mortgage Credit Risk Management—Transfer of Multifamily Mortgage Credit Risk” for more information about our credit-risk transfer activity.
Also see “Retained Mortgage Portfolio,” “Liquidity and Capital Management” and “Risk Management” for discussions of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
Risks and Uncertainties
Our current forecasts and expectations relating to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic are subject to many uncertainties and may change, perhaps substantially. It is difficult to assess or predict the impact of this unprecedented event on our business, financial results or financial condition. Factors that will impact the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic affects our business, financial results and financial condition include: the duration, spread and severity of COVID-19 outbreaks; the actions taken to contain the virus or treat its impact, including government actions to mitigate the economic impact of the pandemic and the widespread availability and public acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine; the extent to which consumers, workers and families feel safe resuming pre-pandemic activities; the nature, extent and success of the forbearance, payment deferrals, modifications and other loss mitigation options we provide to borrowers affected by the pandemic; accounting elections and estimates relating to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; borrower and renter behavior in response to the pandemic and its economic impact; how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume, including whether any future outbreaks or increases in the daily number of new COVID-19 cases interrupt economic recovery; and how quickly and to what extent affected borrowers, renters and counterparties can recover from the negative economic impact of the pandemic. See “Risk Factors” for a discussion of the risks to our business, financial results and financial condition relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. See “Forward-Looking Statements” for a discussion of factors that could cause actual conditions, events or results to differ materially from those described in our forecasts, expectations and other forward-looking statements in this report.
Legislation and Regulation
The information in this section updates and supplements information regarding legislative and regulatory developments affecting our business set forth in “Business—Conservatorship, Treasury Agreements and Housing Finance Reform” and “Business—Charter Act and Regulation” in our 2019 Form 10-K, as well as in “MD&A—Legislation and Regulation” in our Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020 (“First Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q”) and our Second Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q. Also see “Risk Factors” in this report and in our 2019 Form 10-K for discussions of risks relating to legislative and regulatory matters.
FHFA Instruction to Extend Timeframe for Single-Family MBS Delinquent Loan Buyout Policy
Under the terms of our MBS trust documents, we have the option or, in some instances, the obligation to purchase mortgage loans that meet specific criteria from an MBS trust. Our current policy is that, except for loans that are in forbearance or that have been granted certain other types of loss mitigation options (such as a repayment plan or payment deferral), we generally purchase loans from single-family MBS trusts when they become four consecutive monthly payments delinquent. In September 2020, FHFA instructed both us and Freddie Mac to extend the timeframe for our single-family delinquent loan buyout policy to twenty-four consecutively missed monthly payments (that is, loans that are 24 months past due), with the same exceptions noted above, effective January 1, 2021. Despite this change in policy, we currently anticipate that in most cases we will purchase delinquent loans from single-family MBS trusts prior to the 24-month deadline under one of the exceptions to the general policy, which includes loans that are permanently modified, loans subject to a short-sale or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure, loans that are paid in full and loans referred to foreclosure. FHFA’s instruction provides that this new buyout
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timeframe must be in effect for at least two years from the January 1, 2021 effective date and that market participants must be provided at least six months advance notice of any change. FHFA’s instruction also provides that we update our requirements to:
limit servicers’ obligations to advance guaranty fees to four months; and
allow servicers to receive reimbursement for advanced payments of principal and interest on a delinquent loan after four missed payments without being required to request reimbursement.
We are currently examining updates to our requirements on guaranty fee advances and reimbursement of principal and interest advances to comply with FHFA’s instruction, and expect to communicate additional details and effective dates in the future. See “Retained Mortgage Portfolio” for more information on our purchases of loans from MBS trusts.

FHFA Waiver Regarding Publication of Stress Test Results
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) requires certain financial companies to conduct annual stress tests to determine whether the companies have the capital necessary to absorb losses as a result of adverse economic conditions. Under FHFA regulations implementing this requirement, each year we are required to conduct a stress test using two different scenarios of financial conditions provided by FHFA—baseline and severely adverse—and to publish a summary of our stress test results for the severely adverse scenario by August 15.
FHFA regulation requires that the scenarios provided by FHFA be generally consistent with and comparable to those established by the Federal Reserve Board. Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve Board considered alternative scenarios that were not included among the scenarios initially issued by FHFA. Accordingly, on August 13, 2020, FHFA issued a waiver to delay publication of our stress test results for this year so that we may include the alternative scenarios considered by the Federal Reserve Board in the summary of our results, with such other supporting analysis that the Director of FHFA may deem necessary. In September 2020, in light of the continued uncertainty posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal Reserve Board published alternative hypothetical scenarios featuring severe recessions. We will publish our 2020 stress test results after FHFA provides us with instructions regarding these alternative scenarios and a revised publication timeframe.
CDC Eviction Moratorium
On September 4, 2020, to prevent the further spread of COVID-19, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the “CDC”) published an order prohibiting the eviction of any tenant, lessee or resident of a residential property for nonpayment of rent through December 31, 2020, if such person provides a specified declaration attesting that they meet the requirements to obtain the protection of the order. The requirements to obtain the protection of the order include a specified income cap and an inability to pay their full rent. The CDC order does not apply in any jurisdiction with a moratorium on residential evictions that provides the same or greater level of public-health protection. While the CDC order does not impose any obligations on Fannie Mae or its servicers to ensure compliance by borrowers, a borrower’s income may be impacted by tenants who do not pay their rent while under the protection of the CDC order. As a result, as described in “Risk Factors,” this eviction moratorium could adversely affect the ability of some of our borrowers to make payments on their loans.
2019 Housing Goals Performance
We are subject to housing goals, which establish specified requirements for our mortgage acquisitions relating to affordability or location. In October 2020, FHFA notified us that it had determined that we met all of our single-family and multifamily housing goals for 2019. See “Business—Charter Act and Regulation—GSE Act and Other Legislation—Housing Goals” in our 2019 Form 10-K for more information regarding our housing goals.
Financial Stability Oversight Council Statement on Activities-Based Review of Secondary Mortgage Market Activities
In September 2020, the Financial Stability Oversight Council (the “FSOC”) announced that it had completed an activities-based review of the secondary mortgage market, focused in particular on the activities of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (the “GSEs”). In assessing potential risks to financial stability, the FSOC applied the framework for an activities-based approach described in its interpretative guidance on nonbank financial company determinations issued in December 2019. This framework provides that the FSOC will consult with relevant financial regulatory agencies, consider the risk profiles and business models of market participants engaging in the activities under evaluation, and take into account existing laws and regulations that may mitigate a potential risk to U.S. financial stability.
The FSOC noted that any distress at the GSEs that affected their secondary mortgage market activities could pose a risk to financial stability if the risks are not properly mitigated. In conducting its analysis on the extent to which FHFA’s regulatory framework would adequately mitigate potential stability risks, the FSOC reviewed FHFA’s recent proposed capital rule (which we describe in “MD&A—Legislation and Regulation” in our Second Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q) and additional enhancements FHFA is implementing to the GSEs’ regulatory framework. The FSOC’s announcement provided the following suggestions for FHFA to consider relating to the proposed capital rule:
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Risk-based capital requirements. The FSOC noted that FHFA’s proposed capital rule would require aggregate credit risk capital on mortgage exposures that would lead to a substantially lower risk-based capital requirement than the bank capital framework. The FSOC encouraged FHFA and other regulatory agencies to coordinate and take other appropriate action to avoid market distortions that could increase risks to financial stability by generally taking consistent approaches to the capital requirements and other regulation of similar risks across market participants, consistent with the business models and missions of their regulated entities.
Capital buffers. The FSOC encouraged FHFA to consider the relative merits of alternative approaches for more dynamically calibrating the capital buffers. The FSOC noted that the capital buffers should be tailored to mitigate the potential risks to financial stability and otherwise ensure that the GSEs have sufficient capital to absorb losses during periods of severe stress and remain viable going concerns, while balancing other policy objectives.
Total capital sufficiency. The FSOC noted that FHFA’s proposed capital rule requires a meaningful amount of capital for the GSEs, and is a significant step towards ensuring that the GSEs would be able to provide liquidity to the secondary mortgage market and satisfy their obligations during and after a period of severe stress. However, the FSOC also noted that its analysis using benchmark comparisons suggests that risk-based capital requirements and leverage ratio requirements that are materially less than those contemplated by FHFA’s proposed capital rule would likely not adequately mitigate the potential stability risk posed by the GSEs. Moreover, the FSOC noted that it is possible that additional capital could be required for the GSEs to remain viable concerns in the event of a severely adverse stress, particularly if the GSEs’ asset quality were ever to deteriorate to levels comparable to the experience leading up to the 2008 financial crisis. The FSOC encouraged FHFA to ensure high-quality capital by implementing regulatory capital definitions that are similar to those in the U.S. banking framework. The FSOC also encouraged FHFA to require the GSEs to be sufficiently capitalized to remain viable as going concerns during and after a severe economic downturn.
The FSOC also referenced FHFA’s implementation of other significant enhancements to the GSEs’ regulatory framework that would help mitigate the potential risk to financial stability, including efforts to strengthen GSE liquidity regulation, stress testing, supervision and resolution planning. The FSOC’s announcement stated that, “Should these reforms be implemented appropriately, they will lead to a more durable secondary mortgage market that helps provide sustainable access to mortgage credit across the economic cycle and is more resistant to shocks that could impair financial intermediation or financial market functioning to a degree that would be sufficient to inflict significant damage on the broader economy.” The FSOC concluded that it will continue to monitor the secondary mortgage market activities of the GSEs and FHFA’s implementation of the regulatory framework to ensure potential risks to financial stability are adequately addressed; if the FSOC determines that such risks to financial stability are not adequately addressed by FHFA’s capital and other regulatory requirements or other risk mitigants, the FSOC may consider more formal recommendations or other actions.
Proposed Rule on New Products and Activities
The Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, as amended, including by the Federal Housing Finance Regulatory Reform Act of 2008 (together, the “GSE Act”), requires us to obtain prior approval from FHFA before initially offering new products and to provide advance notice to FHFA of new activities, subject to certain exceptions. In October 2020, FHFA issued a proposed rule implementing this provision. The proposed rule establishes a process for the review of new products and activities by FHFA, including providing for a public notice and comment period with respect to new products. The proposed rule also establishes revised criteria for determining what constitutes a new activity that requires notice to FHFA and describes the activities that are excluded from the requirements of the proposed rule. The proposed rule, if adopted as final, would replace an interim final rule that has been in effect since July 2009. Once adopted, the new rule would apply both during and after our transition from conservatorship. The new rule also would cover new activities and new products proposed by Common Securitization Solutions, LLC (“CSS”), which is an affiliate of Fannie Mae.
Extension of Qualified Mortgage Patch
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s (the “CFPB’s”) “ability-to-repay” rule under the Truth in Lending Act includes a general “qualified mortgage” definition, and an exception to that definition referred to as the qualified mortgage “patch,” pursuant to which conventional mortgage loans are considered qualified mortgages if they (1) meet certain qualified mortgage requirements generally and (2) are eligible to be purchased or guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac operating under the conservatorship or receivership of FHFA.
As described in our Second Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q, in June 2020, the CFPB proposed a revised qualified mortgage rule that would eliminate the qualified mortgage patch and revise the general qualified mortgage definition. This proposed rule has not been finalized.
In October 2020, the CFPB issued a final rule extending the expiration of the qualified mortgage patch until the mandatory compliance date for the revised qualified mortgage rule or when Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac exit conservatorship, whichever occurs first. The qualified mortgage patch was previously scheduled to expire on the earlier of January 10, 2021 or the exit of the GSEs from conservatorship.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
8

MD&A | Key Market Economic Indicators
Key Market Economic Indicators
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant adverse effect on both the U.S. and global economies. Below we discuss how varying macroeconomic conditions can influence our financial results across different business and economic environments. See “Executive Summary—COVID-19 Impact” for additional information on the effects of the pandemic on the economy and the uncertainty associated with its ultimate impact on our business and financial results.
Our forecasts and expectations relating to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic are subject to many uncertainties and may change, perhaps substantially, from our current forecasts and expectations.
Selected Benchmark Interest Rates
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(1)According to Bloomberg.
(2)Refers to the U.S. weekly average fixed-rate mortgage rate according to Freddie Mac's Primary Mortgage Market Survey®. These rates are reported using the latest available data for a given period.
How interest rates can affect our financial results
Net interest income. In a rising interest-rate environment, our mortgage loans tend to prepay more slowly, which typically results in lower net amortization income from cost basis adjustments on mortgage loans and related debt. Conversely, in a declining interest-rate environment, our mortgage loans tend to prepay faster, typically resulting in higher net amortization income from cost basis adjustments on mortgage loans and related debt.
Fair value gains (losses). We have exposure to fair value gains and losses resulting from changes in interest rates, primarily through our mortgage commitment derivatives and risk management derivatives, which we mark to market through earnings. Fair value gains and losses on our mortgage commitment derivatives fluctuate depending on how interest rates and prices move between the time the commitment is opened and settled. The net position and composition across the yield curve of our risk management derivatives changes over time. As a result, interest rate changes (increases or decreases) and yield curve changes (parallel, steepening or flattening shifts) will generate varying amounts of fair value gains or losses in a given period. We are preparing to implement hedge accounting in the first quarter of 2021 to reduce the impact of interest-rate volatility on our financial results. For additional information on the expected impact of hedge accounting, see “Consolidated Results of Operations—Fair Value Losses, Net.”
Credit-related income (expense). Increases in mortgage interest rates tend to lengthen the expected lives of our loans, which generally increases the expected impairment and provision for credit losses on such loans. Decreases in mortgage interest rates tend to shorten the expected lives of our loans, which reduces the impairment and provision for credit losses on such loans.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
9

MD&A | Key Market Economic Indicators
Single-Family Quarterly Home Price Growth Rate(1)
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(1)Calculated internally using property data on loans purchased by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and other third-party home sales data. Fannie Mae’s home price index is a weighted repeat transactions index, measuring average price changes in repeat sales on the same properties. Fannie Mae’s home price index excludes prices on properties sold in foreclosure. Fannie Mae’s home price estimates are based on preliminary data and are subject to change as additional data become available.
How home prices can affect our financial results
Actual and forecasted home prices impact our provision or benefit for credit losses.
Changes in home prices affect the amount of equity that borrowers have in their homes. Borrowers with less equity typically have higher delinquency and default rates.
As home prices increase, the severity of losses we incur on defaulted loans that we hold or guarantee decreases because the amount we can recover from the properties securing the loans increases. Decreases in home prices increase the losses we incur on defaulted loans.
Home price growth in the third quarter of 2020 was unseasonably strong despite the COVID-19 pandemic, benefiting from continued low interest rates, low levels of supply and high levels of demand, particularly from first-time homebuyers. Higher-than-expected increases in supply or decreases in demand could lead to decreases in home prices.
We currently expect home prices on a national basis to increase 7.0% in 2020, compared with 4.8% home price growth in 2019. We revised our 2020 home price forecast upward since the second quarter due to better-than-expected housing demand and continued low levels of supply through the first nine months of the year. However, we have adjusted downward our longer-term projection of home price growth as we believe there may be an eventual weakening in housing demand due to the ongoing economic and labor market weaknesses caused by the pandemic. As such, our current estimate of home price growth on a national basis for 2021 is 1.7%. We also expect significant regional variation in the timing and rate of home price growth.
Our forecasts and expectations relating to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic are subject to many uncertainties and may change, perhaps substantially, from our current forecasts and expectations. For example, home price growth could slow and potentially decline if GDP growth is weaker than we currently expect, if unemployment, particularly among existing homeowners and potential new home buyers, is higher than we expect, or if the housing market is more sensitive to economic and labor-market weaknesses than we expect. For further discussion on housing activity, see “Single-Family Business—Single-Family Mortgage Market” and “Multifamily Business—Multifamily Mortgage Market.”
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
10

MD&A | Key Market Economic Indicators
New Housing Starts(1)
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(1)According to U.S. Census Bureau and subject to revision.
How housing activity can affect our financial results
Two key aspects of economic activity that can impact supply and demand for housing and thus mortgage lending are the rate of household formation and housing construction.
Household formation is a key driver of demand for both single-family and multifamily housing. A newly formed household will either rent or purchase a home. Thus, changes in the pace of household formation can affect prices and credit performance as well as the degree of loss on defaulted loans.
Growth of household formation stimulates homebuilding. Homebuilding has typically been a cyclical leader of broader economic activity contributing to the growth of GDP and to employment. Residential construction activity has historically been a leading indicator, weakening prior to a slowdown in U.S. economic activity and accelerating prior to a recovery. However, the housing sector’s performance may vary from its historical precedent due to the many uncertainties related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy and the housing market, as well as uncertainty surrounding future economic or housing policy.
With regard to housing construction, a decline in housing starts results in fewer new homes being available for purchase and potentially a lower volume of mortgage originations. Construction activity can also affect credit losses through its impact on home prices. If the growth of demand exceeds the growth of supply, prices will appreciate and impact the risk profile of newly originated home purchase mortgages, depending on where in the housing cycle the market is. A reduced pace of construction is often associated with a broader economic slowdown and may signal expected increases in delinquency and losses on defaulted loans.
In light of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the economy, home sales fell sharply in the second quarter but then rebounded in the third quarter. Purchase demand has remained resilient, supported by the low mortgage-rate environment. Given both the current strength in demand and low inventories, we expect single-family housing starts to further increase in the fourth quarter and full-year 2020 housing starts to exceed 2019 levels.

Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
11

MD&A | Key Market Economic Indicators
GDP, Unemployment Rate and Personal Consumption
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(1)GDP growth (decline) and personal consumption growth (decline) for periods prior to the third quarter of 2020 are based on the quarterly series calculated by the Bureau of Economic Analysis and are subject to revision. GDP growth and personal consumption growth for the third quarter of 2020 are based on Fannie Mae’s forecast.
(2)According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and subject to revision.
How GDP, the unemployment rate and personal consumption can affect our financial results
Changes in GDP, the unemployment rate and personal consumption can affect several mortgage market factors, including the demand for both single-family and multifamily housing and the level of loan delinquencies. Reduced housing demand and higher loan delinquencies can contribute to credit losses.
Economic growth is a key factor for the performance of mortgage-related assets. In a growing economy, employment and income are rising, thus allowing existing borrowers to meet payment requirements, existing homeowners to consider purchasing and moving to another home, and renters to consider becoming homeowners. Homebuilding typically increases to meet the rise in demand. Mortgage delinquencies typically fall in an expanding economy, thereby decreasing credit losses.
In a slowing economy, employment and income growth slow and housing activity slows as an early indicator of reduced economic activity. Typically, as an economic slowdown intensifies, households reduce their spending. This reduction in consumption then accelerates the slowdown. An economic slowdown can lead to employment losses, impairing the ability of borrowers and renters to meet mortgage and rental payments, thus causing loan delinquencies to rise. Home sales and mortgage originations also typically fall in a slowing economy.
Due to the impact of COVID-19, the unemployment rate rose significantly and GDP declined significantly in the first half of 2020. After a partial recovery in the third quarter, we expect GDP and unemployment to improve further in the fourth quarter of 2020. Overall for full-year 2020, we expect a decline in GDP compared with 2019, as well as elevated unemployment levels from pre-pandemic levels.
See “Risk Factors—Market and Industry Risk” in our 2019 Form 10-K and “Risk Factors” in this report for further discussion of risks to our business and financial results associated with interest rates, home prices, housing activity and economic conditions.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
12

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
Consolidated Results of Operations
This section discusses our condensed consolidated results of operations and should be read together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes.

Summary of Condensed Consolidated Results of Operations
For the Three Months Ended September 30,For the Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019Variance20202019Variance
(Dollars in millions)
Net interest income(1)
$6,656 $5,348 $1,308 $17,780 $15,371 $2,409 
Fee and other income93 188 (95)303 435 (132)
Net revenues6,749 5,536 1,213 18,083 15,806 2,277 
Investment gains, net653 253 400 644 847 (203)
Fair value losses, net(327)(713)386 (1,621)(2,298)677 
Administrative expenses(762)(749)(13)(2,265)(2,237)(28)
Credit-related income (expenses):
Benefit (provision) for credit losses501 1,857 (1,356)(2,094)3,732 (5,826)
Foreclosed property expense(71)(96)25 (161)(364)203 
Total credit-related income (expenses)430 1,761 (1,331)(2,255)3,368 (5,623)
Temporary Payroll Tax Cut Continuation Act of
    2011 (“TCCA”) fees
(679)(613)(66)(1,976)(1,806)(170)
Credit enhancement expense(2)
(325)(290)(35)(1,061)(782)(279)
Change in expected credit enhancement
   recoveries(3)
(48)— (48)413 — 413 
Other expenses, net(4)
(313)(186)(127)(792)(551)(241)
Income before federal income taxes5,378 4,999 379 9,170 12,347 (3,177)
Provision for federal income taxes(1,149)(1,036)(113)(1,935)(2,552)617 
Net income$4,229 $3,963 $266 $7,235 $9,795 $(2,560)
Total comprehensive income$4,216 $3,977 $239 $7,224 $9,703 $(2,479)
(1)Prior-period amounts have been adjusted to reflect the current-year change in presentation related to our yield maintenance fees. See “Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for more information about our change in presentation.
(2)Previously included in Other expenses, net. Consists of costs associated with our freestanding credit enhancements, which primarily include our Connecticut Avenue Securities® (“CAS”) and Credit Insurance Risk TransferTM (“CIRTTM”) programs, enterprise-paid mortgage insurance (“EPMI”), and certain lender risk-sharing programs. See “Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for more information about our change in presentation.
(3)Consists of change in benefits recognized from our freestanding credit enhancements, including any realized amounts. See “Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for more information about our change in presentation.
(4)Consists of debt extinguishment gains and losses, housing trust fund expenses, loan subservicing costs, servicer fees paid in connection with certain loss mitigation activities, and gains and losses from partnership investments.
Net Interest Income
Our primary source of net interest income is guaranty fees we receive for managing the credit risk on loans underlying Fannie Mae MBS held by third parties.
Guaranty fees consist of two primary components:
base guaranty fees that we receive over the life of the loan; and
upfront fees that we receive at the time of loan acquisition primarily related to single-family loan-level pricing adjustments and other fees we receive from lenders, which are amortized into net interest income as cost basis adjustments over the contractual life of the loan. We refer to this as amortization income.
We recognize almost all of our guaranty fee revenue in net interest income because we consolidate the substantial majority of loans underlying our Fannie Mae MBS in consolidated trusts in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Those guaranty fees are the primary component of the difference between the interest income on loans in consolidated trusts and the interest expense on the debt of consolidated trusts.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
13

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
The timing of when we recognize amortization income can vary based on a number of factors, the most significant of which is a change in mortgage interest rates. In a rising interest-rate environment, our mortgage loans tend to prepay more slowly, which typically results in lower net amortization income. Conversely, in a declining interest-rate environment, our mortgage loans tend to prepay faster, typically resulting in higher net amortization income.
We also recognize net interest income on the difference between interest income earned on the assets in our retained mortgage portfolio and our other investments portfolio (collectively, our “portfolios”) and the interest expense associated with the debt that funds those assets. See “Retained Mortgage Portfolio” and “Liquidity and Capital Management—Liquidity Management—Other Investments Portfolio” for more information about our portfolios.
The table below displays the components of our net interest income from our guaranty book of business, which we discuss in “Guaranty Book of Business,” and from our portfolios. Prior period amounts have been adjusted to reflect the current year change in presentation related to our yield maintenance fees.
Components of Net Interest Income
For the Three Months Ended September 30,For the Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20202019Variance20202019Variance
(Dollars in millions)
Net interest income from guaranty book of business:
Base guaranty fee income, net of TCCA$2,842 $2,478 $364 $8,119 $7,178 $941 
Base guaranty fee income related to TCCA(1)
679 613 66 1,976 1,806 170 
Net amortization income2,713 1,487 1,226 6,174 3,851 2,323 
Total net interest income from guaranty book of business
6,234 4,578 1,656 16,269 12,835 3,434 
Net interest income from portfolios422 770 (348)1,511 2,536 (1,025)
Total net interest income$6,656 $5,348 $1,308 $17,780 $15,371 $2,409 
(1)Represents revenues generated by the 10 basis point guaranty fee increase we implemented pursuant to the TCCA, the incremental revenue from which is remitted to Treasury and not retained by us.
Net interest income increased in the third quarter and first nine months of 2020 compared with the third quarter and first nine months of 2019, driven by higher net amortization income and higher base guaranty fee income, partially offset by lower income from portfolios.
Higher net amortization income. A declining interest-rate environment in the third quarter and first nine months of 2020 led to significantly increased prepayment volumes as loans refinanced, which accelerated the amortization of cost basis adjustments on mortgage loans of consolidated trusts and the related debt.
When refinance activity slows, we expect the amortization rate of our loans to also slow, which will likely result in less amortization income in a given period.
Higher base guaranty fee income. An increase in the size of our guaranty book of business combined with loans with higher average base guaranty fees comprising a greater portion of our book contributed to the increase in base guaranty fee income in the third quarter and first nine months of 2020.
Lower income from portfolios. Lower yields in the third quarter and first nine months of 2020 on mortgage loans and assets in our other investments portfolio were partially offset by a decrease in interest expense on our funding debt as key benchmark rates declined as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. For a discussion of the impact of COVID-19 on our funding needs and funding activity, see “Liquidity and Capital Management—Liquidity Management—Debt Funding.”
We expect mortgage rates to remain low through 2021, contributing to a significant amount of mortgage refinance activity and high levels of amortization income. Because a large portion of our book of business has been and is expected to be originated in a historically low interest rate environment, we anticipate that refinancing activity will decrease at some point in the future as fewer borrowers can benefit from a refinancing or as interest rates rise. Lower levels of refinancing in the future will likely slow the rate at which we amortize cost basis adjustments and therefore will likely result in lower amortization income in a given period as the average life of our outstanding book of business may extend.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
14

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
Analysis of Deferred Amortization Income
We initially recognize mortgage loans and debt of consolidated trusts in our condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value. The difference between the initial fair value and the carrying value of these instruments is recorded as a cost basis adjustment, either as a premium or a discount, in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. We amortize these cost basis adjustments over the contractual lives of the loans or debt. On a net basis, for mortgage loans and debt of consolidated trusts, we are in a premium position with respect to debt of consolidated trusts, which represents deferred income we will recognize in our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income as amortization income in future periods.
Deferred Income Represented by Net Premium Position
on Debt of Consolidated Trusts
(Dollars in billions)
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Analysis of Net Interest Income
We have updated the application of our accounting policy for nonaccrual loans as it relates to loans negatively impacted by COVID-19. As a result, for loans that were current as of March 1, 2020 and subsequently become delinquent, we continue to accrue interest income for up to six months pursuant to an April 2020 Interagency Statement on Loan Modifications and Reporting for Financial Institutions Working with Customers Affected by the Coronavirus (the “Interagency Statement”). If those loans are in a forbearance plan beyond six months of delinquency, we continue to accrue interest income provided collection of principal and interest continues to be reasonably assured. As a result of this update, we recognized $763 million in the third quarter of 2020 and $2.2 billion in the first nine months of 2020 in interest income related to these loans which we would not have recognized prior to the application of our updated policy. We also recognized $569 million of provision for loan losses on the related accrued interest receivable in the first nine months of 2020. This update also resulted in a significant portion of delinquent loans staying on accrual status. See “Note 1, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for more information about our accounting policy update and “Single-Family Business—Single-Family Mortgage Credit Risk Management—Single-Family Problem Loan Management” and “Multifamily Business—Multifamily Mortgage Credit Risk Management” for details about loans in forbearance, as well as on-balance sheet loans past due 90 days or more and continuing to accrue interest.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
15

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
The table below displays an analysis of our net interest income, average balances, and related yields earned on assets and incurred on liabilities. For most components of the average balances, we use a daily weighted average of unpaid principal balance net of unamortized cost basis adjustments. When daily average balance information is not available, such as for mortgage loans, we use monthly averages. Prior-period amounts have been adjusted to reflect the current-year change in presentation related to our yield maintenance fees.
Analysis of Net Interest Income and Yield(1)
For the Three Months Ended September 30,
20202019
Average
Balance
Interest
Income/
(Expense)
Average
Rates
Earned/Paid
Average
Balance
Interest
Income/
(Expense)
Average
Rates
Earned/Paid
(Dollars in millions)
Interest-earning assets:
Mortgage loans of Fannie Mae$118,270 $959 3.24 %$119,887 $1,248 4.16 %
Mortgage loans of consolidated trusts3,401,660 24,851 2.92 3,185,389 27,824 3.49 
Total mortgage loans(2)
3,519,930 25,810 2.93 3,305,276 29,072 3.52 
Mortgage-related securities9,582 63 2.63 10,859 111 4.09 
Non-mortgage-related securities(3)
152,229 133 0.34 62,294 347 2.18 
Federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell or similar arrangements
47,200 14 0.12 29,792 178 2.34 
Advances to lenders8,845 33 1.46 6,287 47 2.93 
Total interest-earning assets$3,737,786 $26,053 2.79 %$3,414,508 $29,755 3.48 %
Interest-bearing liabilities:
Short-term funding debt$33,349 $(19)0.22 %$23,064 $(125)2.12 %
Long-term funding debt237,020 (806)1.36 163,996 (1,056)2.58 
Connecticut Avenue Securities® (“CAS”)
16,932 (188)4.44 23,364 (356)6.09 
Total debt of Fannie Mae287,301 (1,013)1.41 210,424 (1,537)2.92 
Debt securities of consolidated trusts held by third parties
3,439,484 (18,384)2.14 3,196,503 (22,870)2.86 
Total interest-bearing liabilities$3,726,785 $(19,397)2.08 %$3,406,927 $(24,407)2.87 %
Net interest income/net interest yield$6,656 0.71 %$5,348 0.61 %
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
16

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
For the Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
Average
Balance
Interest
Income/
(Expense)
Average
Rates
Earned/Paid
Average
Balance
Interest
Income/
(Expense)
Average
Rates
Earned/Paid
(Dollars in millions)
Interest-earning assets:
Mortgage loans of Fannie Mae$111,752 $3,003 3.58 %$119,180 $3,848 4.30 %
Mortgage loans of consolidated trusts3,326,312 78,752 3.16 3,167,172 84,597 3.56 
Total mortgage loans(2)
3,438,064 81,755 3.17 3,286,352 88,445 3.59 
Mortgage-related securities10,474 278 3.54 9,904 320 4.31 
Non-mortgage-related securities(3)
107,155 510 0.63 61,109 1,095 2.36 
Federal funds sold and securities purchased under agreements to resell or similar arrangements
41,030 135 0.43 37,349 698 2.46 
Advances to lenders7,726 92 1.56 4,975 120 3.18 
Total interest-earning assets$3,604,449 $82,770 3.06 %$3,399,689 $90,678 3.56 %
Interest-bearing liabilities:
Short-term funding debt$38,637 $(175)0.60 %$21,138 $(369)2.30 %
Long-term funding debt187,628 (2,370)1.68 172,284 (3,272)2.53 
Connecticut Avenue Securities® (“CAS”)
18,813 (696)4.93 24,170 (1,114)6.15 
Total debt of Fannie Mae245,078 (3,241)1.76 217,592 (4,755)2.91 
Debt securities of consolidated trusts held by third parties
3,357,411 (61,749)2.45 3,173,700 (70,552)2.96 
Total interest-bearing liabilities$3,602,489 $(64,990)2.41 %$3,391,292 $(75,307)2.96 %
Net interest income/net interest yield$17,780 0.66 %$15,371 0.60 %
(1)Includes the effects of discounts, premiums and other cost basis adjustments.
(2)Average balance includes mortgage loans on nonaccrual status. For nonaccrual mortgage loans not subject to the COVID-19-related nonaccrual guidance, interest income is recognized when cash is received. Interest income from the amortization of loan fees, primarily consisting of upfront cash fees and yield maintenance fees, was $2.6 billion and $6.6 billion, respectively, for the third quarter and first nine months of 2020, compared with $1.8 billion and $4.2 billion, respectively, for the third quarter and first nine months of 2019.
(3)Consists of cash, cash equivalents and U.S Treasury securities.
Investment Gains, Net
Investment gains, net primarily includes gains and losses recognized from the sale of loans and available-for-sale (“AFS”) securities, gains and losses recognized on the consolidation and deconsolidation of securities, and the lower of cost or fair value adjustments on single-family loans held-for-sale (“HFS”).
Investment gains, net increased in the third quarter of 2020, compared with the third quarter of 2019, as a result of an increase in both volume and gains on sales of single-family reperforming loans. Investment gains decreased in the first nine months of 2020, compared with the first nine months of 2019, as a result of a lower volume of sales of single-family reperforming loans.
Fair Value Losses, Net
The estimated fair value of our derivatives, trading securities and other financial instruments carried at fair value may fluctuate substantially from period to period because of changes in interest rates, the yield curve, mortgage and credit spreads and implied volatility, as well as activity related to these financial instruments. While the estimated fair value of our derivatives that mitigate certain risk exposures may fluctuate, some of the financial instruments that generate these exposures are not recorded at fair value in our condensed consolidated financial statements.
We are preparing to implement fair value hedge accounting in the first quarter of 2021 to reduce the impact of interest-rate volatility on our financial results. Once implemented, for derivatives in designated hedges, fair value gains and losses attributable to changes in certain benchmark interest rates, such as LIBOR or SOFR, may be reduced by offsetting gains and losses in the fair value of designated hedged mortgage loans or debt. Therefore, we expect the volatility of our financial results associated with changes in interest rates will be reduced substantially. We expect fair value gains and losses driven by other factors, such as credit spreads, will remain.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
17

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
The table below displays the components of our fair value gains and losses.
Fair Value Losses, Net
For the Three Months Ended September 30,For the Nine Months Ended September 30,
2020201920202019
(Dollars in millions)
Risk management derivatives fair value losses attributable to:
Net contractual interest expense on interest-rate swaps$(46)$(190)$(216)$(698)
Net change in fair value during the period44 (294)(85)(541)
Total risk management derivatives fair value losses, net(2)(484)(301)(1,239)
Mortgage commitment derivatives fair value losses, net
(672)(177)(2,327)(946)
Credit enhancement derivatives fair value gains (losses), net
380 (7)400 (31)
Total derivatives fair value losses, net
(294)(668)(2,228)(2,216)
Trading securities gains (losses), net
(91)95 691 370 
CAS debt fair value gains (losses), net
(9)59 465 156 
Other, net(1)
67 (199)(549)(608)
Fair value losses, net$(327)$(713)$(1,621)$(2,298)
(1)Consists of fair value gains and losses on non-CAS debt and mortgage loans held at fair value.
Fair value losses in the third quarter of 2020 were primarily driven by:
decreases in the fair value of mortgage commitment derivatives due to losses on commitments to sell mortgage-related securities as prices increased during the commitment period due to tightening spreads between current coupon yields and treasury yields, which were partially offset by gains on commitments to buy mortgage-related securities; and
losses on trading securities due to increases in U.S. Treasury yields during the period, which resulted in losses on fixed-rate securities held in our other investments portfolio.
These losses were partially offset by fair value gains in the third quarter of 2020 on credit enhancement derivatives, primarily driven by higher projected default rates on our lender risk-sharing securities as delinquencies increased on the underlying loans thus increasing the value of the securities to us.
Fair value losses in the first nine months of 2020 were primarily driven by:
decreases in the fair value of mortgage commitment derivatives due to losses on commitments to sell mortgage-related securities as prices increased during the commitment period due to tightening spreads between current coupon yields and treasury yields, which were partially offset by gains on commitments to buy mortgage-related securities;
increases in the fair value of long-term debt of consolidated trusts held at fair value, which are included in “Other, net,” due to declines in interest rates; and
net interest expense on risk management derivatives combined with decreases in the fair value of pay-fixed risk management derivatives due to declines in swap rates, which were partially offset by increases in the fair value of receive-fixed risk management derivatives.
These losses were partially offset by fair value gains in the first nine months of 2020 on trading securities and CAS debt, primarily driven by declines in interest rates and widened spreads between CAS debt yields and LIBOR, which resulted in gains on fixed-rate securities held in our other investments portfolio and our CAS debt held at fair value.
Fair value losses in the third quarter and first nine months of 2019 were primarily driven by:
net interest expense accruals on risk management derivatives combined with decreases in the fair value of pay-fixed risk management derivatives due to declines in longer-term swap rates, which were partially offset by increases in the fair value of our receive-fixed risk management derivatives;
decreases in the fair value of our mortgage commitment derivatives due to losses on commitments to sell mortgage-related securities as prices increased and interest rates declined during the commitment period, partially offset by gains on commitments to buy mortgage-related securities; and
increases in the fair value of our long-term debt of consolidated trusts held at fair value, which are included in “Other, net,” due to declines in interest rates.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
18

MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations

Credit-Related Income (Expense)
Our credit-related income or expense can vary substantially from period to period based on a number of factors, such as changes in actual and forecasted home prices or property valuations, fluctuations in actual and forecasted interest rates, borrower payment behavior, events such as natural disasters or pandemics, the types and volume of our loss mitigation activities, including forbearances and loan modifications, the volume of foreclosures completed, and the redesignation of loans from held for investment (“HFI”) to HFS. In recent periods, the redesignation of certain reperforming and nonperforming single-family loans has been a significant driver of credit-related income. We suspended new sales of reperforming and nonperforming loans in the second quarter of 2020, as investor interest in purchasing these loans was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects. Market conditions for the sale of these loans, particularly reperforming loans, has improved following the second quarter. As a result, we resumed sales of reperforming loans in the third quarter.
Our credit-related income or expense and our loss reserves can also be impacted by updates to the models, assumptions and data used in determining our allowance for loan losses. The January 1, 2020 CECL standard implementation introduced additional volatility in our financial results as credit-related income or expense now includes expected lifetime losses on our loans and thus are sensitive to fluctuations in the factors detailed above. Although CECL impacts the timing and amount of estimated credit-related income or expense recognized in any given period, it does not impact the amount of credit losses we ultimately realize at the time a loan is written-off.
As described below, during 2020, our credit-related income or expense and our loss reserves have been significantly affected by our estimates of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which require significant management judgment. Changes in our estimates of borrowers that will ultimately receive forbearance (referred to as our “cumulative forbearance take-up rate”) and even more significantly, the loss mitigation outcomes of affected borrowers after the forbearance period ends, remain uncertain and can affect the amount of credit-related income or expense we recognize. Although we believe the estimates underlying our allowance determination are reasonable, we may observe future volatility in these estimates as we continue to observe actual loan performance data and update our models and assumptions relating to this unprecedented event.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
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MD&A | Consolidated Results of Operations
Benefit (Provision) for Credit Losses
The table below provides a quantitative analysis of the drivers for the third quarter and first nine months of 2020 of our single-family and multifamily benefit or provision for credit losses and the decrease or increase in expected benefit from freestanding credit enhancements. The benefit or provision for credit losses includes our benefit or provision for loan losses, accrued interest receivable losses, and our guaranty loss reserves. It excludes the transition impact of adopting the CECL standard, which was recorded as an adjustment to retained earnings as of January 1, 2020. Many of the drivers that contribute to our benefit or provision for credit losses overlap or are interdependent. The attribution shown below is based on internal allocation estimates.
Components of Benefit (Provision) for Credit Losses and Change in Expected Credit Enhancement Recoveries
For the Three Months Ended September 30, 2020For the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2020
(Dollars in millions)
Single-family benefit (provision) for credit losses:
Changes in loan activity(1)
$(18)$(85)
Redesignation of loans from HFI to HFS510 685 
Actual and forecasted home prices939 355 
Actual and projected interest rates25 1,366 
Change in actual and expected loan delinquencies and change in assumptions regarding COVID-19 forbearance(2)
(537)(3,127)
Provision from allowance on accrued interest receivable(391)(560)
Other(3)
14 (43)
Single-family benefit (provision) for credit losses542 (1,409)
Multifamily provision for credit losses:
Changes in loan activity(1)
(32)(106)
Actual and projected interest rates(48)226 
Actual and projected economic data and estimated impact of the COVID-19
pandemic
49 (825)
Other(3)
(11)22 
Multifamily provision for credit losses(42)(683)
Total benefit (provision) for credit losses(4)
$500 $(2,092)
Change in expected credit enhancement recoveries:(5)
Single-family$(48)$218 
Multifamily(4)188 
Total change in expected credit enhancement recoveries$(52)$406 
(1)Primarily consists of loan liquidations, new troubled debt restructurings (“TDRs”), amortization of concessions granted to borrowers and the impact of FHFA’s Advisory Bulletin 2012-02, “Framework for Adversely Classifying Loans, Other Real Estate Owned, and Other Assets and Listing Assets for Special Mention” (the “Advisory Bulletin”). For multifamily, changes in loan activity also includes changes in the allowance due to loan delinquencies and the impact of changes in debt service coverage ratios (“DSCRs”) based on updated property financial information, which is used to assess loan credit quality.
(2)Includes changes in the allowance due to assumptions regarding loss mitigation when loans exit forbearance.
(3)For single-family, includes changes in the reserve for guaranty losses that are not separately included in the other components. For multifamily, includes provision for allowance on accrued interest receivable.
(4)Excludes credit losses on our AFS securities, which are included in “Benefit (provision) for credit losses” in Summary of Condensed Consolidated Results of Operations.
(5)Includes only changes in expected credit enhancement recoveries for active loans. Recoveries received after foreclosure, which are included in “Changes in expected credit enhancement recoveries” in Summary of Condensed Consolidated Results of Operations, are not included.
Fannie Mae Third Quarter 2020 Form 10-Q
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